Abstract. This study employed a scoping review methodology and thematic analysis to examine the grassroots-level implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines. The research emphasized the importance of exploring the experiences and perspectives of those directly involved in policy execution and recognizing their critical roles. Mapping the existing literature, the study identified four emerging themes: teacher preparedness and training; limited resources and difficulty in translation; language diversity and language selection difficulty; and community engagement and support. These themes underscored the complexities surrounding MTB-MLE implementation, highlighting areas for improvement and policy refinement. A functional framework was formulated to provide a structured approach to understanding and addressing the identified issues. The framework recommended in-service training and workshops for educators, resource development and iterative translation, language proficiency assessments for students, and community-based initiatives. These elements are crucial for overcoming current challenges and establishing a sustainable foundation for the ongoing success of MTBMLE initiatives. Although MTB-MLE has positive policy aims, its implementation at the ground level remains a subject of academic inquiry due to specific limitations. This study aimed to contribute to the vital discussion on the complex interplay between language policy directives and grassroots realities and provide practical recommendations for improving MTB-MLE implementation and associated educational initiatives.

Keywords: MTB-MLE implementation; Philippines; Language policy; Grassroots reality; Functional framework.